as few as 50 stable flies or 100 horn flies. IPM focuses on maximizing pest control with appropriate available pest control strategies while minimizing risks to people, animals, and the environment. Insecticide resistance is a frequent and legitimate concern when using chemical insecticides, especially with filth flies. Flies can hatch in less than 12 hours after eggs are laid in the right conditions. For cattle, very small amounts of active ingredient (less than 2 g) are released onto the animal in a season. Cypermethrin, permethrin, and resmethrin are synthetic forms of pyrethrin called pyrethroids; they are more stable than the pyrethrins and have longer-lasting effectiveness. It is a misconception that IPM does not include chemical control. By Erika Machtinger, Can you identify these flies? This can also prevent adult flies from laying eggs. Counting the number of flies on the legs or the number of stomps is typically the most reliable since stable flies tend to bite below the elbow and stifle on horses. Baited traps can be purchased commercially or made at home. These flies like to feed on the shoulders, neck, withers and belly, contributing to abdominal midline dermatitis. This information can help you understand: The filth fly (house, stable, horn, and face flies) life cycle includes egg, larva, pupa, and adult stages. Both face flies and horn flies are best monitored on the animal by either fly counts or evasive behaviors, as previously mentioned for stable flies. Answer: Integrated pest management (IPM) is the use of multiple methods to maximize pest control while minimizing cost and risks to humans, animals, and the environment. The rest will perch on … Residual insecticides and premise sprays are applied to walls, ceilings, and other places where flies rest. Question: Why should I learn to identify the pests and their life cycles? Photo by Janet Graham on wikimedia.org Licensed under CC B Y 2.0, Lesser house fly larvae are hairy and very distinct from the smooth appearance of other filth flies. Irritations from the bites annoy animals and occasionally, the wounds may become infected. Watch for fly location on the animal body, coloration, and mouthparts. While some pest flies can be very common on horse farms, other flies that are not necessarily pests can be found and are often confused with fly pests. You’ll find horn flies on the backs, shoulders and sides of the animal. Using these wasps is fairly straightforward. While no current products are labeled for fly control on equine facilities, research is exploring the development of new products using these safe and beneficial-insect-friendly fungi as traps or biopesticides. Direct effects are due to the pest's presence and physical nuisance. Round bale management can reduce fly development, particularly stable flies. Photo by Hafiz Issadeen on flickr.com Licensed under CC B Y 2.0, Larvae are cream to yellow with a tapered end and a blunt end and pupae are reddish brown and oval in shape. A female horn fly can lay up to 100 to 200 eggs during her life of approximately six to seven days. However, in the fall, they will enter farm homes and other buildings and overwinter indoors near pastures or where cattle are kept. Feed-through growth regulators are administered as supplements that are fed to the horse, pass through the digestive system, and are excreted in fecal matter. If your evaluation suggests your control methods aren't working, it may mean that you need to reevaluate one of the previous steps. Female parasitoid wasps lay eggs in the fly pupae. Horn flies breed only in fresh cow manure, so the presence of cattle in the vicinity of horses is necessary for this fly to be a problem on horses. There are multiple Habronema hitchhike on biting stable flies and houseflies to gain entry through wounds or while flies are imbibing fluids from the horse's lips and nostrils. Supporting evidence like horse comfort and fly presence can help determine the effectiveness of the plan. It is important to consider all options from a pest management, time, and resources standpoint when selecting control options. They spend much of their time resting on branches and fences and attempting to catch and copulate with female flies as they move about. Photo by Wolfgang van de Rydt, Spot cards are an odor-free way to monitor for flies. Horn flies develop exclusively in fresh cattle manure, whereas stable flies prefer decaying organic matter that is slightly older and from various sources. During very hot or rainy weather, the flies move to the underside of the belly. These pests collect on cattle, often gathering on the back and sides of the animal. Mechanical methods can be used to modify manure management. Prepared by Erika T. Machtinger, assistant professor of entomology. The feeding behavior of the face fly can help distinguish it from other flies. This requires frequent turning and covering to maintain a high internal temperature that will kill developing flies. Integrated pest management may, but doesn't necessarily have to, involve multiple strategies to control flies. These may be levels implemented by the farm owner or clients that worry about animal health. Sticky traps can be purchased or made at home, and hung in areas where flies congregate, like feed rooms. In these cases, reapplication is necessary. Apply daily for effective control against flies. Bothersome insects can cause the animal to become nervous and interrupt its performance. There are many ways to deal with waste manure, but the most common methods on equine facilities are manure accumulation areas and spreading manure over paddocks or other land. Research shows that only about 5% of house fly and stable fly populations will reside on the horses themselves. Photo by Erika Machtinger. Two problems exist with relying on chemical insecticides for filth fly control. They only work on flies that lay eggs in manure, such as houseflies, horn flies and stable flies. These same attractants can also be used in homemade traps. Resistance can develop when pests are repeatedly exposed to a toxin. Nature gives a lot of help in the fight against these flies in the form of attacking predacious insects and dung Since baits are toxic, it will be necessary to prevent other animals and children from being exposed to them. At the very least, determine whether suitable habitats for development exist. Horse flies bite and it comes with a punch. This can cause fatigue and loss of blood. If you see horses constantly stomping, you probably have stable flies. Usually, once you start noticing high numbers of adult pests, it is too late to do much to quickly solve the problem. In the female, the abdomen has little yellow or orange on the sides but, in the male, the sides of are yellowish-orange to orange-brown. Or can you tolerate flies around your horses (right)? While adults are easiest to monitor, you need to identify whether they are developing on the property before control plans are put in place. During hot and sunny weather, they may move downward onto the animal’s belly. Horn Flies: Horn flies love to bite the horses back, shoulders, and sides. Preferred material, and likely the only material, for face fly egg-laying is fresh cattle manure, which makes face flies a primary concern in mixed-use facilities (those with horses and cattle) or at horse farms that are near cattle facilities. Proper farm and facility drainage should be established, and leaky waterers, hoses, or other water sources should be repaired quickly. https://www.petmd.com/horse/conditions/skin/c_hr_bots_parasites Moisture is naturally present in animal waste as well, which allows it to be a suitable site of development for many filth flies. windows. These eggs are laid in organic material with some heat and moisture—such as in manure, soiled bedding, spilled feed, decaying grass clippings or hay, or similar materials. Photo by Erika Machtinger. Horn flies look like houseflies and stable flies, but horn flies are slightly smaller. And unlike mosquitoes, the bite of a horse fly is very painful. In general, jug traps catching over 250 flies per week or spot card counts over 100 are indicative of high levels of fly activity. Major species of parasitoid wasps found naturally on equine farms are primarily Spalangia endius and Spalangia cameroni. These are typically sprayed and allowed to dry. Please note that this is not a suitable control method for horn flies or face flies that develop exclusively in cattle manure. When you decide on an insecticide, look at the active ingredients and compare to the Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC) chart. Options at the bottom of the pyramid are also more environmentally benign, whereas methods at the top of the pyramid have greater potential to impact the environment. Horn flies are found on the withers and the back of the animal, and will move to the belly during hot parts of the day. An adult house fly can lay several clutches of up to 200 eggs at a time. Photo by Erika Machtinger. On-animal and fly-avoidance behavior counts should be conducted at regular intervals during the same time of day. IPM is cyclical. Why do we need this? Preferred application method, type, and active ingredients can help you choose the best option. By contrast, male Face Flies feed only on nectar and manure. Be sure to fully read and understand pesticide labels and Safety Data Sheets before applying any pest control product on the farm. Both sexes bite intermittently and may feed up to 20-40 times per day. Cyclical nature of the basic steps of integrated pest management. Females require blood meals for egg production and can lay several hundred eggs during their lifespan. Primarily livestock (specifically cattle) are affected, but it is known to feed on horses, sheep and goats, albeit to a lesser extent. Animals become so annoyed that they may injure themselves while attempting to dislodge the flies. nematodes and can be transmitted by flies. Manure management eliminates sites that are suitable for fly development. Face Flies superficially look like House Flies but they lay their eggs only on fresh cattle manure in fields. Automatic fly misting systems are a type of residual and premise spray. These can be effective when competing food sources are limited. Adults look similar to adult house flies but have orangish sections on the sides of the abdomen. Photo by Erika Machtinger, “Summer sores" are caused by Habronema spp. Is your tolerance level close to zero (left)? Indirect effects are transmission … Both of these methods have pros and cons and require some background information to be effective. This information can be found below the brand or trade name as the active ingredient and the percent concentration. Cultural control (or sanitation control) is more preventive, and the options get more reactionary as you move up the pyramid. An adult fly will lay eggs that emerge and develop into the larval stage. Adult lesser house flies are similar in appearance to the common house fly but smaller and with three stripes on the thorax that are less pronounced. Photo by Erika Machtinger. Photo by Erika Machtinger, The edges of rubber mats in stalls and horse trailers are good places to check for fly development. Like jug traps, sticky ribbons can be purchased commercially and hung in areas where flies congregate. They are gray with a tan spot between the black stripes, which are slightly lighter in color than on the house fly. The base of the abdomen also has a distinct yellow patch on either side. Pyrethrins and pyrethroids are most common for fly control on horses. Lesser house flies are similar in appearance to the common house fly but smaller and duller. These may or may not be effective depending on local resistance and application. They have a bayonet-like mouthpart that juts out from the head. However, targeted control options are available for each of these fly pests and life stages, with the goal being to break (or interrupt) the life cycle at one or more points and reduce pest numbers. Stable flies are biting flies with long, pointed mouthparts that can cause pain when biting. Horses are accidental hosts; horn flies may be found as adults, but they are not developing on your farm unless you also have cattle. This is in contrast to house flies, which hold their bodies parallel to the surface and have downward-facing mouthparts. Be aware of the external parasite species that are in … Both male and female horn flies have piercing mouthparts and feed on blood, taking up to 40 bloodmeals per day. If not, some control options (such as using parasitoid wasps) will not be effective. In addition, only apply products that are labeled for use in the state of application. Adult house flies are non-biting flies with sponging mouthparts. Adults will fly from local cattle farms; thus, adult control is necessary. However, they can also be found on open wounds or in large groups resting on fence lines. At rest, stable flies hold their body at an angle to the surface with the head higher than the rear and have forward-projecting mouthparts. Before applying any product (including on-horse fly sprays), read the label and note application rates. Horn flies can become a serious problem for horses because both sexes feed many times a day, leaving only occasionally to lay eggs. Adult stable fly in characteristic resting position with the front end at an angle from the resting surface. These flies are frequently found on the head near the lips, nostrils, and eyes, or near open wounds. If a horse has thin skin or is sensitive they can react to the pain of the bite itself with a jump or bolt forward and can also have a skin reaction swelling in the area of the bite. Horse flies attack large mammals, such as humans, dogs, and, of course, horses. All illustrations 2006 Dr. Roy Ellis. This is not a suitable control method for horn flies or face flies that develop exclusively in cattle manure. Face Flies are now resistant to many pesticides, Consult your local Veterinarian or farm extension agent for effective control methods in your area, Note: not all flies on the face of your animals may be Face Flies. However, horn flies are smaller, have shorter mouthparts, and are typically found on the body of the animal, whereas stable flies are often found on the legs. These flies are smaller, ranging from about 1/6 to 1/5 inch in length, and slightly narrower than the other filth flies. Adult flies can travel several miles while searching for new hosts. On-animal fly problems can be reduced by using physical exclusion methods such as fly sheets, masks, and boots. House flies hold their body parallel to the surface where they are resting. I can see that there are flies! Masks with ear covers are also helpful in areas plagued by gnats. The IPM pyramid is a simple way to view different control strategies. Count pests consistently at the same time intervals. The most effective and environmentally sensitive approach for controlling pests is through integrated pest management (IPM). They seldom bite people. Dr. Bill ClymerFort Dodge Animal Health, Dr. Roy EllisPrairie Pest Management, Dr. Kevin FloateAgriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Dr. Robert M. Miller, DVM, Dr. William QuarlesBio-Integral Resource Center. The mouthparts of the Face Fly are fleshy and blunt and do not protrude straight from the head like a bayonet, as do those of the Horn Fly and Stable Fly. The keys to cultural control, or sanitation, are moisture and manure management. Facility size and structure will determine how many fly ribbons, jug traps, or spot cards are needed. Infected blood, applied by capillary action to the mouthparts (labella) of 15 deer flies (Chrysops sp) and a single horse fly (Tabanus atratus) caused infection in each of 2 sheep.