Environ. Biol. For the ¼-inch sized slag used in our structure, we intend to test the ability of the material to serve as landscape mulch. Adv. A combination of slag fertilizer and microbial remediation strategies could be proposed for effective remediation of soil contaminants. Plant Nut. doi: 10.1038/nrmicro2439, Song, A., Fan, F., Yin, C., Wen, S., Zhang, Y., Fan, X., et al. (2009b). Most importantly, lime and silicate always exist in the steelmaking slag. In recent years, several studies have revealed that the slag-based fertilizer amendment in agriculture has great promise to improve crop productivity (White et al., 2017; Gwon et al., 2018), alleviate soil acidification (Ning et al., 2016), mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (Wang et al., 2015; Gwon et al., 2018), and stabilize heavy metals in contaminated soils (Ning et al., 2016), which turns it into a high value added product for sustainable agriculture. Understanding the effects of slag fertilizer on soil microbial communities and functions is essential to address some critical agro-environmental issues, such as whether the slag fertilizer amendment would be useful to increase crop productivity, reduce GHG emissions, increase soil carbon sequestration, and stabilize heavy metals in contaminated soils. Microbiol. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2012.04299.x, Gwon, H. S., Khan, M. I., Alam, M. A., Das, S., and Kim, P. J. With advances in omic techniques, soil microbial communities and community-level molecular characteristics have been exploited as early indicators of ecosystem processes for sustainable soil management and agricultural productivity (Shokralla et al., 2012). The stabilization technique aims at reducing heavy metal and metalloid (e.g., As, Cr, Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn) bioavailability in contaminated soil. (2004). Effect of combine application of organic manure and inorganic fertilizer on methane and nitrous oxide emissions from a tropical flooded soil planted to rice. Unfortunately, few studies have focused specifically on understanding the changes in soil microbial community and function under slag fertilizer amendment in cropping systems. Rev. The potential effects of slag on crop plants have been described in the separate subheading and also shown in Figure 2. Korea, Japan, Bangladesh and China). The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. doi: 10.1038/s41477-018-0108-y, PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar, Bose, H., and Satyanarayana, T. (2017). 'speedIn' : '300', doi: 10.1016/j.apgeochem.2014.04.009, Salek, S. S., Kleerebezem, R., Jonkers, H. M., Witkamp, G., and van Loosdrecht, M. C. M. (2013). 12, 797–808. All Rights Reserved. Steel slag amendment is becoming an effective 22 method to increase the soil fertility, stabilize rice production, and reduce greenhouse-gas 23 emissions in Asiatic paddy fields (i.e. 7:303. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2016.00303, Ning, D., Liang, Y., Liu, Z., Xiao, J., and Duan, A. Received: 03 December 2018; Accepted: 27 May 2019; Published: 18 June 2019. doi: 10.12944/CWE.10.3.29, Das, S., and Adhya, T. K. (2014). Agronomy 8, 1–17. Thus, there is a high chance that the steelmaking slag could be utilized as a soil amendment. Soils 48, 435–442. It has a texture full of holes. 5. Cumulative CH4emission was lower for the slag and slag + biochar amendments than the control in early paddy by—34.1%. Soils 53, 627–638. The term “slag” is used in the specifications of slag silicate fertilizer and slag phosphate fertilizer in the Fertilizer Control Law. Steel slag can be considered a mineral amendment used to improve soil acidity, and also a source of calcium and magnesium. Steel slag presented an Amendment Neutralization Potential very high (ANP = 114%) reported to the content of calcium oxide and magnesium oxide. Mechanisms of silicon-mediated alleviation of abiotic stresses in higher plants: a review. Silicon, the silver bullet for mitigating biotic and abiotic stress, and improving grain quality, in rice? The increase in grain yield, however, mostly depends on slag type, application rate, soil type, and agronomic management. Any composted or non-composted material of inorganic origin that is produced or distributed for adding to soils, it includes 'soil amendment', 'soil additive', 'soil improver' and similar terms, but excludes polymers that do not biodegrade, such as plastics, rubbers and coatings. The sand-sized and smaller waste material left from lava gravel is an excellent, highly paramagnetic soil-amendment material. (2008). (2009a) reported that the silicate fertilizer amendment in no-tillage submerged paddies could improve the crop yield up to 47.2%. Iron oxidation coupled to denitrification can occur in anoxic soils, which can lead to N2O production (Melton et al., 2014); however, under conditions where Fe is highly available, the electrons donated by Fe(II) exceed the electron demand for N2O production, which leads to complete denitrification to N2 and thus a suppression of N2O emissions (Wang et al., 2016). Road Ash. 10:1320. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2019.01320. |, Driving Mechanisms of Slag-Microbe Interactions in Soil, Slag-Microbe Interaction Effects on Crop Yield, Slag-Microbe Interaction Effects on Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Slag-Microbe Interaction Effects on Soil Carbon Storage, Slag-Microbe Interaction Effects on Heavy Metal Stabilization in Contaminated Soils, Environmental Concerns About the Use of Slag in Agriculture, https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2019.01320/full#supplementary-material, http://cdn.intechopen.com/pdfs/32571/InTech-Possible_uses_of_steelmaking_slag_in_agriculture_an_overview.pdf, http://www.nssmc.com/en/tech/report/nssmc/pdf/109-23.pdf, Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). K uptake increased in rice field soil but decreased in tea orchard soil. In Japan, about 40 million tons of slags are generated during iron and steelmaking We studied 24 the relationships of steel slag amendment with plant-soil … Some studies suggest slag fertilizer decreases N2O emissions (Susilawati et al., 2015; Wang et al., 2015), while other studies suggest slag fertilizer increases N2O emissions (Huang et al., 2009; Liu et al., 2012). Contain iron, calcium, magnesium and zinc. “Possible uses of steelmaking slag in agriculture: an overview” in Material recycling – Trends and perspectives. 31, 139–146. NET WEIGHT 50 LBS **PICTURE MAY NOT BE ACTUAL REPRESENTATION! Slag. Environ. Field soil (silty gravelly sand) contaminated with 1.5 mg kg-1 of Cd was 45 collected from Guizhou, China. (2012). NET WEIGHT 50 LBS **PICTURE MAY NOT BE ACTUAL REPRESENTATION! Ali et al. Among fertilizers made from slag, the use of silicate fertilizer, particularly in rice cropping systems has been gaining awareness and demand (Meharg and Meharg, 2015). Pollut. (2015). AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 6, Number 1, ISSN 2285-5718, 195-200. ed. Mat. AKA: Compost. A Comparison of Blast-Furnace Slag and Limestone as a Soil Amendment, Yolk, Harding and Evans, Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station, Research Bulletin 708, November 1952. Investigations on phosphorus recovery and reuse as soil amendment from electric arc furnace slag filters. Considered an unconventional amendment, steel slag was selected taking into account its quality and association with legislation. In addition, long-term experiments in Germany showed that steel slag fertilizer amendment did not increase bio-available Cr content in soil and Cr uptake by plants (Hiltunen and Hiltunen, 2004). Pollut. Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 6, Number 1, Written by Georgiana PLOPEANU, Eugenia GAMENŢ, Mariana MARINESCU, Nicoleta VRÎNCEANU, Vera CARABULEA, University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Bucharest, Agriculture for Life International Conference, Executive Unit for Financing Higher Education, Research, Development and Innovation (UEFISCDI). Since slag is rich in lime (CaO), silicic acid (SiO2), phosphoric acid (P2O5), magnesia (MgO), Mn, and Fe, these properties of the slag can be exploited to make use of fertilizer (Ito, 2015). 8, 779–790. (2006), however, revealed that the long-term application of converter slag significantly increased Cr and V contents in the cultivated layer of soil. Molasses acts as a soil amendment and is an excellent chelating agent … Carbon dioxide sequestration in soils is well recognized as an avenue to mitigate climate change. Effective utilization of organic amendments and slag builds soil fertility, improves plants resistance against disease, and it is important for sustainable agriculture. Summary of potential effects of slag on crop plants. Geoderma 271, 173–180. Taxonomic and functional responses of soil microbial communities to slag-based fertilizer amendment in rice cropping systems. In fact, at the system level, soil microorganisms play a vital role in virtually all ecosystem processes and provide ecosystem services crucial for the maintenance of soil quality and productivity (Das et al., 2017). At the system level, soil microorganisms play an integral role in virtually all ecosystem processes. Moreover, the adequate Si supply through slag silicate fertilizer amendment causes competitive inhibition of As(III) uptake by crop plants (Meharg and Meharg, 2015). To be cited: AgroLife Scientific Journal. jQuery('.Citation27').trigger('click'); The soil amendment is composed of the main material, amine treated lignite, bone meal, bran, soybean meal, and the other additives. Civil Eng. They represent the authors’ point of view. Application of PTC slag as acid soil amendment will reduce the demand of P fertilizer, and even in high dosage can meet the P demand of komatsuna plant.Chemical properties of Pretreatment center slag (PTC-slag) were analyzed and compared to … While expanded shale is great for use in clay soils, it actually has several other uses too.The following expanded shale information explains how to use expanded shale in the garden. doi: 10.1080/00380768.2015.1041861, Wang, M., Hu, R., Zhao, J., Kuzyakov, Y., and Liu, S. (2016). The publisher is not responsible for the opinions published in the Volume. (2016). Slags contain traces of heavy metals, but the concentrations of heavy metals might not be enough to pose environmental risks (Gwon et al., 2018); however, it is believed that the long-term application of slag fertilizer in agriculture may accumulate heavy metals/metalloids in soil and may cause health risks. This necessitates silicate fertilizer amendment in rice cropping systems for sustainable rice cultivation. Ag-Slag has proven its value as an agricultural liming material since the 1920's in all types of crop production and landscaping. 120, 8–17. Likewise, the introduction of plant growth promoting bacteria possessing CA activity in agriculture could have the dual benefit of increased crop yield and CO2 sequestration. 171, 146–156. (2017) reported that the silicate fertilizer amendment significantly decreased denitrification potential and nirS and nirK gene abundance in paddy soils. 'showCloseButton' : true, doi: 10.1016/j.geoderma.2016.02.022, Wang, W., Lai, D., Abid, A., Neogi, S., Xu, X., and Wang, C. (2018). Characteristics and environmental aspects of slag: a review. Articles, University of Southampton, United Kingdom. From the perspective of natural resource conservation, environmental protection, and human health safety measures, recycling of slag has drawn the attention of scientists, environmentalists, and policymakers in recent years. Emphasis has been given for further research to validate the proposed mechanisms associated with slag-microbe interactions for increasing soil quality, crop productivity, and mitigating environmental consequences. Microbiol. Kuhn, M., Spiegel, H., Lopez, A. F., Rex, M., and Erdmann, R. (2006). Field Crops Res. Steel slag is produced during the steel making process where, after air cooling, a dense rock material is processed and sized into specific products suitable for diverse applications. (Luxembourg: International). Plant Sci. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). Evaluation of silicate iron slag amendment on reducing methane emission from flood water rice farming. Potential biotechnological strategies for the cleanup of heavy metals and metalloids. Application of PTC slag as acid soil amendment will reduce the demand of P fertilizer, and even in high dosage can meet the P demand of komatsuna plant. 128, 21–26. The increase of slag recovery and use in different fields of application, such as agriculture, is an imperative way for sustainable development (Ito, 2015). This aggregate product can be used on driveways but cannot be covered with black top or concrete. Investigations on phosphorus recovery and reuse as soil amendment from electric arc furnace slag filters. CALL FOR UP TO DATE PRICING & AVAILABILITY Copyright © 2019 Das, Kim, Hwang, Verma and Kim. 'scrolling' : 'auto', The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. Moreover, silicate fertilizer amendment can increase root biomass and O2 transport from the plant to root by enlarging arenchyma gas channels (Liang et al., 2007), which in turn suppresses CH4 production and stimulates CH4 oxidation. 8:1615. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.01615, Branca, T. A., and Colla, V. (2012). 'hideOnOverlayClick': false, Mol. LF slag (slag from secondary treatment of steel) occurs in the form of a powdery material. Using steel slag as amendment for acid soils can be considered a potential and significant environmental risk, which is why the whole process of amendment must be conducted in terms of environmental protection. Front. Impacts of Basic Slag, Aggregate Size and Groundwater Levels for the Amendment of Acid Sulfate Soils in Relation to the Production of Mustard in a Simulation Study Md. Khan Department of Soil, Water & Environment, Faculty of Biological Sciences University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. Soil salinity and pH were significantly higher for an amendment with both slag and biochar than the control in both the early and late paddies, and pH was significantly higher for a slag amendment in the late paddy. (2015) suggested that the silicate fertilization is not significantly effective in improving the rice yield. furnace slag began to decrease sharply in the early 1970s. The recent advances in omic techniques, e.g., high-throughput sequencing, metatranscriptomic analysis, and DNA/RNA-based stable isotope probing (SIP) will no doubt be imperative to uncover the hidden dimensions of slag-microbe interactions in ecosystem functioning. (2012) reported that the silicate fertilization is not effective in reducing CH4 emissions in green manure amended paddy soils probably due to the enhanced decomposition of added organic matter by the silicate liming effect. D. Achilias (InTech). PRINT ISSN 2285-5718, CD-ROM ISSN 2285-5726, ISSN ONLINE 2286-0126, ISSN-L 2285-5718.